In vitro propagation techniques



Modified structure


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Multiplication of Vegetative Reproduction Species

Reproduction is an essential activity for the survival of the species. Plants reproduce sexually (by seed) or asexually (or vegetatively). Vegetative propagation is defined as the multiplication of a plant from a vegetative part such as stem, root or leaf. It is made possible by the ability of certain vegetative parts of plants to regenerate whole plants. In some species, the stem or stem fragment is capable of giving rise to new roots (or adventitious roots) while in other species the root or root fragment is capable of generating stems (or leafy shoots). ). The leaves of some groups of plants can give rise to both stems and roots. It therefore appears that the cells of the plant each have the genetic information necessary for the regeneration of the whole plant (notion of totipotency). The traits of the mother plant are perpetuated in the offspring, this because, during normal cell division (mitotic division), the genes are faithfully copied, and in most cases, each new plant produced by this method is genetically identical to the mother plant. The individuals composing this population constitute a clone.


In this multiplication method, a cuttings (bud or young branch) harvested from a plant that we would like to propagate, is attached to another so-called rootstock plant so that the two unite and develop harmoniously into one. unique plant. In general, the graft comes from a plant which one would like to consume the aerial parts (leaves and fruits), and the rootstock is from a plant known for its ability to develop a good root system, to resist diseases and pests of plants of telluric origin, and to tolerate certain stresses such as the water deficit or the unusually high salinity of soils. There are several types of grafting. The most common are the coat of arms (on citrus), graft in terminal slot (on mango) and the graft in side slit (on avocado).


This method involves stimulating the rooting of part of the stem or branch still attached to the mother plant. The layering is used on species whose cuttings die before rooting (guava and safoutier). Compared to cuttings, this method has the advantage of being less demanding in watering and humidity. However layering is a relatively slow and complex multiplication method that requires the prior production of the mother plant. There are several types of marcots:

The cuttings

C’est la méthode de multiplication végétative qui consiste en un prélèvement d’un fragment de tige avec des bourgeons chez une plante vasculaire, généralement ligneuse; la bouture obtenue est introduite dans un substrat afin de former une nouvelle plante

Modified structures

Vegetative propagation can be achieved through modified structures such as bulbs (onions), tubers (potato, yam, macabo), roots (sweet potato) or rhizomes (macabo, taro, plantain). .

In vitro propagation techniques

These techniques can be grouped in 2 on the basis of the type of explant used and the multiplication rate:

In vitro multiplication from axillary buds and apical meristems (relatively lower multiplication rate). Involves apex culture and nodal microboutures;
Stimulation of adventitious shoots and direct somatic embryos (from fragments of plants and organs (explants), and indirectly (using prior callus formation or calogenesis)

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